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Train Driver

  • Hours

    35 per week

  • Starting salary

    £18,000 + per year

If you are interested in railways and like driving this could be a perfect career for you. As a train driver you would drive passenger and freight trains on local and national rail networks. You could also drive trains that pull engineering equipment into place for track maintenance.

You do not always need specific qualifications, although most employers will expect you to have a good general standard of education.

To become a train driver, you will need to be able to concentrate over long periods. You will need good customer service skills. You will also need to react quickly and calmly to unexpected problems.


The work

You would make stops along your route to pick up and drop off passengers or freight. Other tasks could include:

  • checking equipment and engines before a journey starts
  • contacting control centres for information about routes and any problems
  • following signalling instructions during the journey
  • making passenger announcements
  • controlling automatic doors
  • positioning and handing over engines to drivers on the next shift.

You would also record any incidents during your shift, for example equipment problems on the train or by the track, and dangers and delays.


Most companies operate on a 35-hour week. This could be spread over four or five shifts (known as turns) including weekends, evenings and nights.

On freight or engineering trains, you would usually do more night shifts. On long distance routes, you may have overnight stays away from home.

You would usually work alone in the driver's cab during the journey. Sometimes a trainee driver or driver inspector will be with you.


Trainee drivers can earn between £18,000 and £22,000 a year.

Newly qualified drivers can earn over £30,000 a year, and experienced drivers can earn between £35,000 and £48,000 a year.

Free or reduced price travel is usually offered as an extra benefit.

Figures are intended as a guideline only.

Entry requirements

You do not always need specific qualifications to be a train driver, although most employers will expect you to have a good general standard of education, including GCSEs in maths and English. Some mechanical or electrical knowledge may also be useful. You could check with train operating companies directly for details of vacancies for trainee drivers.

Another way into this career is to start work in the rail service doing another job, for example as part of the station staff or maintenance crews. You could then apply for trainee driver posts as they become available. Train companies often recruit from their own workforce.

You normally have to be at least 21 to work as a train driver on the national rail network. If you are aged between 18 and 21, you may be able to train and work in yards and depots away from passenger lines. To work on the London Underground you must be at least 18.

If your initial application is successful, you will be invited to an assessment centre for tests and an interview. Tests could cover:

  • basic mechanical knowledge
  • ability to remember information
  • reaction times
  • concentration skills
  • group exercises.

You will also have to pass medical checks, which will test your fitness levels, eyesight, colour vision and hearing. Companies also screen for drugs and alcohol.

You can find a list of train companies on the Association of Train Operating Companies (ATOC) website.

People 1st is the Sector Skills Council for hospitality, passenger transport, travel and tourism and their website, Careers That Move, gives more information and advice about jobs in the passenger transport and travel industries.

Training and development

Once you start work, your training period would normally last between 9 and 18 months. Some of your training may take place in a cab simulator, which gives the effect of real-life situations such as trackside dangers, bad weather and mechanical failure.

Your training would be split into stages, including:

  • rules and regulations – driver cab controls, signalling systems and track safety
  • traction knowledge – engine layout, safety systems and fault identification
  • train handling – 200 to 300 hours' practical driving skills, including night driving
  • route knowledge – route-specific information, such as braking distances, speed restrictions and signal positions.

You must pass assessments at the end of each stage to fully qualify as a train driver. You would also complete a Personal Track Safety (PTS) certificate during the training period. You can only drive on routes you have been assessed on, so you would continue to learn more routes once you qualify.

You could take work-based qualifications, such as:

  • Level 2 (NVQ) Certificate in Rail Services (Shunting)
  • Level 2 (NVQ) Diploma in Rail Services (Driving).

As a driver, you could also work for a rail engineering company and receive training to drive on-track machines used in maintenance work. For example, machines like ballast tampers, which pack the ballast underneath tracks, and rail grinding and milling machines used to remove track defects.

A driving standards manager would regularly assess your driving skills throughout your career.

Skills, interests and qualities

To become a train driver, you will need to have:

  • good ability to concentrate over long periods
  • good customer service skills
  • an excellent understanding of normal and emergency procedures
  • the ability to react quickly, calmly and safely to unexpected problems
  • a responsible attitude and a high level of safety awareness
  • a willingness to work flexibly.

More information

Careers That Move (Opens new window)



Employers include passenger train operators, freight companies, and underground, light rail and metro companies. You can find a list of train operating companies on the Association of Train Operating Companies (ATOC) website.

With experience, you could be promoted to driver instructor and then driver safety manager jobs. Beyond this level, you could move into operations management.

You may find the following useful for vacancies and general reading:

Job market information

This section gives you an overview of the job area that this profile belongs to. You can use it to work out your next career move. It can help if you’re looking for a job now or want to do some further training.

The 'Market statistics' charts are based on figures from the UK Commission for Employment and Skills (UKCES) and the Office for National Statistics (ONS).

The list of job vacancies under 'Apply for jobs' is from the Universal Jobmatch database. The vacancies are not from the National Careers Service.

Median income: Transport
Avg Inc
UK Sector
27017 24028
Gender: Transport
Female Male
5 95
Working pattern: Transport
Part-time Full-time Self-employed
13 63 24
Gaps in sector due to skills shortages: Transport
This sector All vacancies
9.9 16.2
Employment forecast: Transport
Forecast Employment Figures
Year Predicted nos. employed
2014 950000
2015 951000
2016 954000
2017 957000
2018 960000
2019 961000
2020 963000

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